In a time where perfidious leaders proliferate, it is probably best to harken back to the times when heroes dominated our political landscape. They are giants compared to the ignominious pygmies who now pretend to be our betters.

This time was the time when our nation-state was being formed within the crucible of revolution and international war.

While the Philippine Revolution is not obviously an international war, it is. It may be an anti-colonial war. It may be a national liberation movement. Ultimately, it is an armed conflict between a gasping Spanish empire and the nascent First Philippine Republic.

The same Philippine Republic also got engaged in another international war against the Americans — the so-called Philippine-American War or the Philippine Insurrection (as the Americans preferred to call the hostilities).

The historical period produced organizations such as the La Liga Filipina, Katipunan, and Bagong Katipunan, and the likes of Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Apolinario Mabini, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Deodato Arellano, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, Juan Luna, Antonio Luna, Miguel Malvar, Makario Sakay, Aurelio Tolentino, Isabelo de los Reyes, Gregoria de Jesus, and many other true sons and daughters of the Filipino people.

In a dialectical sense, the heroism of many is accentuated by the treason of others like Emilio Aguinaldo and Pedro Paterno.


For a full copy of the article, please click on the link below:–why-did-ph-revolution-vs-spain-us-fail-first-foreign-minister-lists-reasons


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